Simultaneous effusive and explosive cinder cone eruptions at Veniaminof Volcano, Alaska

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Christopher Waythomas


Historical eruptions of Veniaminof Volcano, Alaska have all occurred at a 300-m-high cinder cone within the icefilled caldera that characterizes the volcano. At least six of nineteen historical eruptions involved simultaneous explosive and effusive activity from separate vents. Eruptions in 1944, 1983–1984, 1993–1994, 2013, 2018 and 2021 included periods of explosive ash-producing Strombolian activity from summit vents and simultaneous nonexplosive effusion of lava from flank vents on either the southern or northeast sides of the cone. A T-junction conduit network is proposed to explain the simultaneous eruptive styles and as a mechanism for gas-magma segregation that must occur to produce the observed activity. Historical eruptions with simultaneous summit and flank activity produced slightly higher rising ash clouds compared to historical eruptions where simultaneous activity did not occur. This could be a consequence of the partitioning of more gas-charged magma into the vertical conduit of a T-junction conduit system.


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How to Cite
Waythomas, C. (2021) “Simultaneous effusive and explosive cinder cone eruptions at Veniaminof Volcano, Alaska”, Volcanica, 4(2), pp. 295–307. doi: 10.30909/vol.04.02.295307.